Monday, December 25, 2006

Means of production

Means of production , also called means of labour are the materials, tools and other instruments used by workers to make products. This includes: machines, tools materials, plant and equipment, land, raw materials, money, power generation, and so on: anything necessary for labor to produce. The term originates with Marx, who explicitly differentiates means of production from capital. For Marx, means of production were the instruments and materials of labor independent of the mode of producing and appropriating surplus. On the other hand means of production become capital, only within a particular set of social relations: when those means of production participate in the process of exploiting labor for surplus value.
Means of production is sometimes confused with factors of production. The term factors of production is typically understood as an explanation for income as duly paid to owners of each means of production and also to the workers themselves within capitalism. By comparison, the term means of production applies to these means independent of their ownership and their compensation, and regardless of whether the mode of producing is capitalist, feudal, slave, communal or otherwise.

Sunday, December 17, 2006

In Physics

Space is one of the few fundamental quantities in physics, meaning that it cannot be defined via other quantities because there is nothing more fundamental known at present. Thus, similar to the definition of other fundamental quantities, space is defined via measurement. Currently, the standard space interval, called a standard meter or simply meter, is defined as the distance traveled by light in a vacuum during a time interval of 1/299792458 of a second. This definition coupled with present definition of time makes our space-time to be Minkowski space and makes special relativity theory to be absolutely correct by definition.
In classical physics, space is a three-dimensional Euclidean space where any position can be described using three coordinates. Special and general relativity uses space-time rather than space; space-time is modeled as a four-dimensional space with the time axis being imaginary in special relativity and real in general relativity, and currently there are many theories which use more than four-dimensional spaces.
Before Einstein's work on relativistic physics, time and space were viewed as independent dimensions. Einstein's discoveries have shown that due to relativity of motion our space and time can be mathematically combined into one symmetric object — space-time.

Monday, December 11, 2006

Military decoration

A military decoration is a decoration given to military personnel or units for heroism in battle or distinguished service. They are designed to be worn on military uniform.
Civil decorations awarded to military personnel should not be considered military decorations, although some orders of chivalry have civil and military divisions. Decorations received by police and fire brigade personnel may sometimes be considered alongside military decorations, on which they may be modelled, although they are strictly not military awards.
Decorations have been known since ancient times. Celts and Romans wore a torc, Dayaks wore and still wear tattoos, etc. Necklaces and bracelets were given during the early middle Ages, evolving into richly jewelled big necklaces, often with a pendant attached.

Monday, December 04, 2006

Weedy Sea Dragon

The Weedy Sea Dragon or Common Sea Dragon is a marine fish related to the seahorse. It is the only member of the genus Phyllopteryx. They occur in water 3 to 50 meters deep round the southern coastline of Australia, approximately between Port Stephens, New South Wales and Geraldton, Western Australia, as well as around Tasmania. Weedy sea dragons are named for the weed-like projections on their bodies that camouflage them as they move among the seaweed beds where they are usually found.
Weedy sea dragons reach up to 45 cm in length. They feed on tiny crustacea and other zooplankton, which are sucked into the end of their tube-like snout.A more cryptic relative of the weedy sea dragon is the leafy sea dragon. However, according to the November 2006 issue of National Geographic magazine, marine biologist Greg Rouse believes leafy and weedy sea dragons may be the same species residing in a wide territory.
The Aquarium of the Pacific in Long Beach, California and Melbourne Aquarium in Australia are the only facilities in the world to have successfully bred Weedy Sea Dragons in captivity.The Weedy Sea Dragon is an aquatic emblem of the State of Victoria.The Leafy Sea Dragon Festival is held biennially in the Fleurieu Peninsula, south of Adelaide.