Sunday, July 29, 2007

Ultralight aviation

During the late 1970s and early 1980s, many people sought to be able to fly affordably. As a result, many aviation authorities set up definitions of lightweight, slow-flying aeroplanes that could be subject to minimum regulation. The resulting aeroplanes are commonly called "ultralight" or "microlight", although the weight and speed limits are rarely the same between any two countries.

There is also an allowance of another 10% on Maximum Take Off Weight for seaplanes and amphibians, and some countries also allow another 5% for installation of a ballistic parachute.

The safety regulations used to approve microlights vary between countries, the most strict being the United Kingdom, Italy and Germany, while they are almost non-existent in France and the United States. The disparity between regulations is a major barrier to international trade and overflight, as is the fact that these regulations are invariably sub-ICAO, which means that they are not internationally
recognised.In most affluent countries, microlights or ultralights now account for about 20% of the civil aircraft fleet.Ultralight aircraft are generally called microlight aircraft in the UK and New Zealand, and ULMs in France and Italy. Some countries
differentiate between weight shift and 3-axis aircraft, calling the former microlight and the latter ultralight.

The U.S. light-sport aircraft is similar to the UK and NZ Microlight in definition and licensing requirement, the U.S. 'Ultralight' being in a class of its own.

Sunday, July 22, 2007


Bread is a staple food of European, Middle Eastern, Mexican and Indian cultures which is prepared by baking, steaming, or frying dough. Bread consists minimally of flour and water; salt is present in most cases; and usually a leavening agent such as yeast is used. Breads may also contain some amounts of sugar, spices, fruit, vegetables, nuts, or seeds. There are a wide variety of breads, with preferences differing from region to region.

Fresh bread is prized for its taste and texture, and retaining its freshness is important to keep it appetizing. Bread that has stiffened or dried past its prime is said to be stale. Modern bread is often wrapped in paper or plastic film, or stored in airtight containers such as a breadbox to keep it fresh longer. Bread that is kept in warm moist environments is prone to the growth of mold. It becomes stale more quickly in the low temperature of a refrigerator, although by keeping it cool, mold is less likely to grow. A way to keep bread longer is to put it in the freezer, preserving it for several weeks.

Monday, July 16, 2007


Rail transport is the transport of passengers and supplies by means of wheeled vehicles particularly designed to run down railways.

A railway/railroad track consists of two parallel iron rails, usually anchored vertical to beams, termed sleepers or ties, concrete, or steel to keep a steady space apart, or gauge. The rails and perpendicular beams are generally then placed on a base made of concrete or condensed earth and gravel in a bed of ballast to stop the track from buckling as the ground settles over time below and under the weight of the vehicles passing above. The vehicles traveling on the rails are arranged in a train; a string of individual powered or unpowered vehicles connected together, displaying markers.

Friday, July 13, 2007

Family planning

Family planning is often used as a euphemism for birth control, though its connotations are somewhat different. It is most usually applied to the circumstance of a monogamous heterosexual couple who wish to limit their number of children, to control the timing of pregnancy , or both. Inherent in the idea is that the couple does have at least one child, that is, they use birth control to plan, not to prevent, a family.

Family planning may include more or less permanent abstinence, or the marginally effective withdrawal method, or methods of sexual satisfaction other than genital intercourse, More commonly, however, it is considered to be a system that allows a couple to have sexual intercourse on a long-term, regular basis, during which the man normally reaches orgasm and ejaculation in the woman's vagina, while nevertheless sharply and reliably reducing the chance that she will become pregnant until such time as the couple wish. Family planning thus often incorporates methods of birth control that either prevent fertilization or work after fertilization to prevent the implantation of an embryo. The essence of family planning, then, is to make intercourse purely a means of expressing love, building stability in the relationship, and sharing physical pleasure, and not a means of reproducing.

Sunday, July 08, 2007

In geography

Geographical space is called land, and has a relation to ownership. While some cultures assert the rights of the individual in terms of ownership, other cultures will identify with a communal approach to land ownership, while still other cultures, rather than asserting ownership rights to land, invert the relationship and consider that they are in fact owned by the land. Spatial planning is a method of regulating the use of space at land-level, with decisions made at regional, national and international levels. Space can also impact on human and cultural behaviour, being an important factor in architecture, where it will impact on the design of buildings and structures, and on farming.

Ownership of space is not restricted to land. Ownership of airspace and of waters is decided internationally. Other forms of ownership have been recently asserted to other spaces — for example to the radio bands of the electromagnetic spectrum or to cyberspace.

Public space is a term used to define areas of land is collectively owned by the community, and managed in their name by delegated authorities. Such spaces are open to all, while private property is the land owned by an individual or company, for their own use and pleasure.

Abstract space is a term used in geography to refer to a hypothetical space characterized by complete homogeneity. When modeling activity or behavior, it is a conceptual tool used to limit extraneous variables such as terrain.